Makar Sankranti signifies the transit of the Sun in Capricorn/Makar Rashi and is falling on 14th January at 08:29 am this year. Punya Kaal would be observed from Punya Kaal: 08:29 am to 5:42 pm on 14th January 2021.
Saturn owns the Capricorn sign, and the arch enmity between Sun and Saturn is very well known. It is believed that on this day, Saturn gave up a prominent part of this enmity towards Sun (Sun being the Father) and respected the movement of his Father in his zodiac sign. In total, the Sun transits to twelve zodiacs in a year and spends one month in each zodiac sign, but this transit/Sankranti is treated as the most auspicious.
Astronomically speaking, Sun turns Uttarayana (Northerly movement) during this Sankranti and follows a positive course, i.e., from south to north of the equator. According to Hindu tradition, the six months of Uttarayana (January to June) represent a single day of the Gods. Therefore, all kinds of worship, charity, and donations are believed to be more rewarding in nature during this period.
The current Prayagraj Kumbh Mela will also initiate on this day. For those interested in praying and appeasing the Gods, as well as pacifying the nine planets, some of the following activities may be of interest.
Taking a dip in the holy waters like Ganga, Yamuna, Kaveri, Narmada, Godavari is considered very auspicious as it is believed to deliver purification of mind and body.
Seeking blessings from one’s parents by touching their feet is ever rewarding. One should also offer gifts to the parents. Sun represents Father in astrology, so every effort to appease one’s Father would definitely strengthen the influence of Sun in the birth horoscope.
Offering argha/jal to Surya and reciting Aditya Hridaya Stotra and/or Surayashtak is believed to alleviate afflictions related to Sun in the birth horoscope. It also delivers good health and wards off enemies.
Donating raw wheat, white sesame (safed til), rice, and jaggery is considered very auspicious. A combination of wheat and white sesame pacifies Sun and Saturn together. This activity is rewarding for individuals who are experiencing wrath from Shanidev.
Donating Satnaja (Sabut Kala Urad dal, Sabut Hara Urad dal, Wheat, Kala Chana, Jau, Rice, and Bajra) is very beneficial for those who are afflicted by multiple planets at the same point in time. This is also considered very helpful to get rid of problems in professional life.
Reciting Dashrath krit Shani Stotra, Shani Chalisa, Maha Mrityunjaya mantra is also considered very rewarding.
Likewise, reciting Shri Vishnu Sahastranaam, Shri Vishnu Stotra, Shri Narayan Kavach is also considered very rewarding. Beyond other benefits, Shri Vishnu Sahastranaam is also known to ward off afflictions caused due to Mercury.
Best of Luck