Panchang is the Hindu calendar which is based on the placement of the planets in the zodiac. It is used to determine the festivals, fasts etc. it also enables one to select a suitable day and time in order to perform auspicious ceremonies like marriage or for starting something important like a new business, job etc. It is available in various languages and provides astrological date for every day of the year. Panchang of the day is calculated on the basis of latitude, longitude, time, planetary positions and your time zone. Panchang has five parts:
1. Tithi- Tithi is the day according to the Hindu Lunar calendar. A tithi is considered complete when moon has 12 degrees from the sun. There are 16 different tithis. Amavasya and Purnima take place once every month and the other tithis occur two times in a month. They are Pratipada, Dwitiya, Tritiya, Chaturthi, Panchami, Shashti, Saptami, Ashtami, Navami, Dashami, Ekadashi, Dwadashi, Trayodashi and Chaturdashi. Purnima and Amavasya are considered as the 15th and 30th tithi respectively. A month is also divided into two parts on the basis of the moon’s shape. The first part is called Shukla Paksha and the second is called Krishna Paksha.
2. Weekday (Vaar) - There are seven days or vaars, Sunday (Ravivaar), Monday (Somvaar), Tuesday (Mangalvaar), Wednesday (Buddhvaar), Thursday (Guruvaar), Friday (Shukrvaar) and Saturday (Shanivaar).
3. Nakshatras- There are 27 Nakshatras as per Vedic astrology but if we go by muhurtha astrology, a 28th Nakshatra is also taken into account. It is known as Abhijit Nakshatra and is considered very lucky for doing something important.
4. Yoga- Yoga is the combination of sun and moon and there are 27 yogas.
5. Karana- Karana is half of tithi and there are eleven karanas.